Daniel Christodoss, Phd, PE
View Resume email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Design, Construction & Maintenance-Municipal Water/Waste Treatment Plants, Municipal Water-Drainage Board, Siruvani Adivaram, Madras State, India. Construction oversight of Gannon Dunkerly & Co., a British-Indian Firm
Investigation for Laying Water Supply Distribution System, Municipal Water-Drainage Board, Coimbatore, Madras State, India
Maintenance of a Waste Water Sewage Farm, Municipal Water-Drainage Board, Coimbatore, Madras State, India
Filling in for Charles one day as Engineering Supervisor at the Low Water Dam Project
Innovative Technology Development in Municipal/Hazardous Waste Treatment, Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN
Sewer Design for an Industrial Site at FMC Jacksonville, Florida site at Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN
R&D of Innovative Technologies in Iron-Manganese Sequestration for Municipalities and Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (funded by AWWA), University of TN, Knoxville, TN
Instructor/Adjunct Professor for Municipal Water-Waste Treatment Plant Design, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
Heavy Metal Industrial Waste Treatment plant Construction and Optimization, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) at Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Groundwater Recovery System Infrastructure Design and Construction and O&M, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Design and Construction Engineering for Treatment Plant Upgrade, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Miscellaneous Design-Construction Projects, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Corrective Measures Study for Groundwater Treatment, (a) Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Site, Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX and (b) Department of Energy Site, Jacobs Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN
Interim Stabilization Measures for Sites A, B and C Contaminated with Heavy Metals from Plating Operations, Free Product, Chlorinated Solvents and DNAPLs, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Corrective Measures Implementation (Design and Detailed Construction Cost Estimate) for Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals and Chlorinated Solvents, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX
Environmental Compliance and Waste Management for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, and Waste Management of Y-12, X-10 and K-25 Plants at Oak Ridge, at Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN
Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis-Environmental Assessment, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN.
Feasibility and Treatability Studies for Department of Energy Sites, Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN
Demobilization/Closure and Spill Control Plan for Chanute Air Force Base, Rantoul, Illinois at Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN
Feasibility and Treatability Studies for Department of Energy Sites, Jacobs Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN.
Remedial Investigation, Closure Permits, Studies & Design (CERCLA / RCRA / NRC), EPA, DOE and Commercial Client (GE) Bechtel Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN
|1||Design, Construction & Maintenance-Municipal Water/Waste Treatment Plants, Municipal Water-Drainage Board, Siruvani Adivaram, Madras State, India. Construction oversight of Gannon Dunkerly & Co., a British-Indian Firm.|
Supervised construction of a 101.4 million gallons per day water treatment plant in the middle of an elephant forest at 2,500 ft above msl. I oversaw the construction of a spray nozzle aeration chamber for the oxidation and precipitation of ferrous iron which was present in the water at high levels and caused significant discoloration. My responsibilities included:
Verification of the structural design for this treatment unit, and
During the course of this construction, I disapproved the formwork and reinforcement for the northern wall of the aeration chamber because the cover and spacing was significantly different from the construction drawings. The error was corrected and upon re-inspection I found that the formwork and reinforcement complied with the design drawings. The concreting of this structure was approved in the field and construction was completed.
In addition to the above task, I was responsible for the construction of a chemical house to inject Alum in the flash mixer prior to clari-flocculation and soda ash to the clarifier effluent for pH adjustment. During the review of the design and the construction oversight no problems were encountered. The design complied with the codes and was structurally and hydraulically sound. The construction of the chemical house was completed under my oversight.
My second task was the construction of the filter house. I was placed in this role due to the transfer of a senior engineer who had overseen the construction of the foundation and had completed this component of the structure. My task was construction of the support columns, floor slab, 20 filter beds/chambers, washwater troughs, filter media placement, underdrains, extended columns, continuous water quality monitors, overhead washwater tank and the shell roof. I reviewed the design for this structure and found that it complied with the code and was in essence a sound structural design except for the design of the walkway slab, washwater tank and the shell roof. Following are the problems encountered during construction and the resolution.
The filter house construction was completed under my oversight.
Subsequently, I was placed in charge of the construction of another 2-story building to house pumps and the main control station for the plant. During construction of the roof of this building, I noticed that the contractor had already placed his formwork and was ready for pouring of the concrete based on an old drawing that was superceded. The construction of this building was placed on hold until the formwork and reinforcement were redone in accordance with the latest design drawings. The structure was completed under my oversight.
Periodically, I was also engaged in assisting another engineer in the construction of the clari-flocculator. I reviewed the design and found it to be adequate and code-compliant. The sloping bottom of the clari-flocculator was critical for sludge collection in the central sludge chamber. Periodic surveying was performed to ensure the structure was completed in accordance with the design drawings.
Clari-Flocculator (Combined Unit)
Water Supply to City 500 ft msl 40 miles
After completion of the treatment plant construction I was involved in maintenance and operation of this plant for a short period of time.
back to project list 1-20
|2||Performed investigations for laying water supply mains from main storage reservoirs to terminal points in the distribution system.|
The purpose was to provide water supply to rural areas. I performed level surveying to map out the proposed route for laying water supply mains and was involved in calculating the loss of head for the length of pipe between the storage reservoir and the point of consumption.
back to project list 1-20
|3||Maintenance of a Waste Water Sewage Farm , Municipal Water-Drainage Board, Coimbatore, Madras State, India|
In charge of maintenance of a sewage farm which involved overseeing the operation of the civil and mechanical components of this treatment system and performing overall site maintenance of the sewage farm and the upstream conveyance line.
back to project list 1-20
|4||Innovative Technology Development in Municipal/Hazardous Waste Treatment, Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN|
I designed treatment systems for field studies and prepared several Technical Grant Proposals for Research and Development of Innovative Treatment Technologies and was the Principal Investigator on a Bechtel Technical Grant Team for researching and developing sequestration pretreatment designs for minimization of hazardous waste sludge generation in municipal and remedial treatment systems. The technical grant was selected as one of the three winning proposals in a very competitive Bechtel worldwide competition. The technical grant work for development of an innovative technology is an extension of my dissertation in groundwater treatment. I designed the air stripper, carbon unit, and an innovative pretreatment system for performing a field study at the Wartburg Water Treatment Plant and designed the treatability study work plan for performing the field study. I sampled the influent groundwater to the treatment system, and performed HACH Broad Spectrum analysis for contaminants/water quality parameters.
back to project list 1-20
|Sewer Design for an Industrial Site at FMC Jacksonville, Florida site at Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN|
Conceptually designed the sewer for to convey water from a blowdown and sinks from a tank farm, metal frame warehouse and a 2 story concrete block warehouse to a sanitary sewer after being treated in an activated carbon unit. I performed conceptual design of the carbon unit. I designed the corrugated metal pipe sleeve for rail loads. I calculated the inlet time for a storm sewer and flow to the storm sewer based on a 25 year storm and designed the storm sewer pipes and a storage reservoir to provide retention capacity during storm events from mass-curves, critical duration and Clark et als method to come up with conservative capacities for the reservoir. I concluded that the critical duration method is more accurate as it makes allowance for critical duration similar to the unit hydrograph methods. I designed the sumps for the storm sewer system and calculated the number of catch basins required. I calculated the excavation quantities for constructing the catch basins.
back to project list 1-20
|6||R&D of Innovative Technologies in Iron-Manganese Sequestration for Municipalities (funded by AWWA), University of TN, Knoxvill, TN|
Performed experimental investigations on a promising technology known as "sequestration" which provided an economical alternative to removal of iron and manganese in groundwater. During this investigation I analyzed treated samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers, Beckman Spectrophotometers, Amperometric Titrimeters, X-Ray Diffraction equipment, and utilized Streaming Current Detectors and Laser-Zee meters to further investigate the sequestration technique. I tested various commercially available chemicals to compare treatment effectiveness, compared treatment effectiveness at different pH levels in the presence and absence of hardness and investigated the mechanism of iron and manganese sequestration in treated samples.
back to project list 1-20
|7||Instructor/Adjunct Professor for Municipal Water-Waste Treatment Plant Design, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN|
During my tenure at the University of Tennessee, and later as an adjunct professor, I taught a Civil Engineering Course in Water and Wastewater Treatment for 3 semesters.
back to project list 1-20
|8||Heavy Metal Industrial Waste Treatment plant Construction and Optimization, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) at Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
Performed a comprehensive full-scale field study of the Unipure process to optimize treatment performance at a time when the plant was failing NPDES criteria at the outfall. Introduced HACH screening analysis and innovative field jar test to find solutions, and produced a final optimization report for enhancing the treatment process. Process parameters evaluated included: influent water quality, pH range for effective floc formation, flow rates, chemical dosages and solids loading in the reactor. The report recommended solutions for meeting NPDES and was successfully implemented and met the permit limits. Paper on construction/optimization published in Environmental Technology Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering (1-4/99).
Photograph of Unipure System
back to project list 1-20
|9||Groundwater Recovery System Infrastructure Design and Construction and O&M, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
I provided design and construction engineering during the design and construction of a groundwater remediation system composed of four (4) groundwater recovery wells (A, B, C and D) for Site 1 which is a former metal plating facility contaminated with DNAPLs. The design involved selection of the appropriate pumps, ball and check valves, sampling ports, pipe diameter for the laterals from the recovery well to the main collection line up to a new pumping station. The main collection line, and the pumping station were also designed and the appropriate on/off controls for the pumps were also selected based on water level fluctuations in the recovery wells. Electrical conduits and wiring were designed from the pumps to an existing control panel (preliminary later modified and approved by the engineer). Site features are given below:
The groundwater remediation system for which I provided design and construction involved 50 deep wells with high capacity pumps that are used to draw down the ground water at the site to stop migration of a contaminated plump to off-base areas. The wells discharge water is conveyed to a common point in an underground valve box at the corner of two Roads. Well Cs discharge line connects into Well Ds line and the combined discharge is combined with the separate lines from Wells A and B at the valve box. The valve box has two effluent lines. When one of the valves is open, it allows discharge to a lift station. The lift station discharges the effluent from Site 1 and Site 2 to a larger lift station at Site 4. The discharge from this lift station also includes water from Site 5 and runoff from a storm. The other valve allows discharge to a nearby manhole in the Industrial Waste Collection System (IWCS) gravity line to a Process Control Facility for treatment.
I performed similar 100% construction designs and construction management for Sites 2, 4, and 5. Similarities in designs and extent of the designs I performed for these sites are highlighted below:
I evaluated different options and selected the right power source (480/277 Volts, 125 KVA pad mounted transformer). I discussed my findings with the electrical engineer and provided him with details on the transformer and my remediation system capacity. The electrical engineer approved this approach for the power source.
I designed the complete layout for the service entrance and control panel, antenna and radio mounting poles for the SCADA system, lift station bypass, ultrasonic and mechanical meter boxes, specifications for all equipment, system components and instrumentation (with coordination/assistance from the electrical/controls engineer), groundwater recovery system collection lines, electrical and control conduits, and performed preliminary sizing of the control and electrical wires for electrical engineers review. The electrical engineer approved wires which were one number grade thinner (e.g. #10 vs. #8) since it met requirements and minimized cost.
I evaluated different options and selected the right submersible pump for the groundwater remediation system recovery wells based on the type of use, system head characteristics, flows required, pump characteristic curves, and available power source. I specified pumps with the Environmentally Safe "E Series" Rating, i.e. pumps with teflon seals and bearings for the pumps and viton seals, diaphragm, washer bushings, etc., for the motor for use in hazardous environment. I specified a chemically resistant hose (CH200, Seal Fastener, Inc. or Equal) due to the potential for disintegration of the regular hoses by chemicals present in the water. I specified the levels at which the on/off and ground probes for the pump need to be placed so the pump is always submerged and the time interval.
I determined the distance available between valves, tees, reducers and bends and the flow meter in the existing well box and found it to be inadequate for effective operation of the meter. Due to the turbulence expected, I designed a separate valve box adjacent to the well box to house the meter so more reliable meter readings can be obtained.
I determined that it will not be safe to place any electrical or control junction boxes in the wells due to the hazardous environment and specified that these electrical/control boxes be placed in the meter box and mounted as high as practical. The meter box had an open bottom with pea gravel for natural drainage.
I designed another meter box similar but larger in size to house the cumulative system flow meter to measure total flow from 2 wells combined. I selected an ultrasonic flow meter since this meter does not have any intrusive device in the pipe obstructing the flow but simply clamps onto the body of the pipe. I found from an evaluation of the ultrasonic and magnetic flow meter that meter readings with the ultrasonic flow meter are more reliable since this instrument is less sensitive to silt in the water. The ultrasonic meter box was made a little larger so that it could house electrical/control junction boxes to extend wiring from the wells to the control panel.
I selected a Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) 11 HDPE pipe and sized the 2-inch laterals from wells and the 4-inch, 6-inch and 8-inch main lines based on the pumping head, required flows and the calculated head loss in order to maintain the required head to convey water to the pump station, or via bypass directly to the treatment plant.
I designed the oil-water separator and the lift station to handle flows from the groundwater recovery well field based on a nominal detention time for such structures. I incorporated an economical alternative to variable flow pumps in the lift station. The alternative included a lead pump for low flow conditions and the lead + lag pump for high flow conditions. This design incorporated a variable flow pumping arrangement in the lift station using regular pumps without the need for expensive variable flow pumps. I designed the discharge details so that the low flow pump would turn on during low flow conditions. If all the well fields are active, then the water in the lift station will rise past the operating range for the low flow pump and the high flow pump will now be activated. This alternative was hailed by the client due to budget constraints. Although this alternative did not allow for cycling of the pumps to maintain longevity, the client preferred this option since it met the initial budget constraints for the project without having to temporarily halt the project for lack of funding. I provided a complete conceptual process flow diagram to illustrate how this lead-lag pump system will function and convey water to the groundwater treatment plant.
I now evaluated the entire well field, distribution and treatment plant layout. Based on my evaluation, I found that there was no way to shut off the well field if the lift station is down. I determined this to be a serious problem as this could cause contaminated groundwater to spill at the 2 lift stations. To alleviate this problem, I specified that a float switch be installed in the lift station above the lead pump (low flow) and the lag pump (high flow) on sensors. Control wiring layouts from the float switch were designed by me to be extended to the control panel. I performed the preliminary interlocking design specifications and requirements (finalized by electrical engineer) so that in the event of lift station pump failure, the control panel will shut down the well pumps and there will be no flow of water to the lift station. This interlocking will prevent spills at the lift station when the pumps are down due to mechanical breakdown or other reasons. Another float switch at a downstream lift/pump station (en-route to the treatment plant) was specified by me (designed and finalized by electrical engineer) to shut down the well pumps upstream of the first lift station (via radio communication to the first control panel) when the second lift station is down. I now proceeded to specify that the existing control wires from the treatment plant also be interlocked with the well field control panels at a remote pump station to shut the well fields and prevent them from pumping water to the treatment plant. I determined this to be an important requirement to prevent spills from occurring at the treatment plant equalization basin.
I designed a bypass line around the 2 lift stations to bypass contaminated groundwater to the treatment plant when the lift station was down due to mechanical or other maintenance problems. The well pumps which automatically shut down when the lift station goes down will be manually started and valves (normally closed) would be opened (by an operator). The regular route to the lift stations (normally open valves) will then be closed (to bypass water around the lift stations).
I specified electrically actuated valves in coordination with the controls engineer for the final segment of the lift station bypass (for auto bypass of an existing line from a pneumatic pump well field) since the well field control panel could not be designed to automatically shut the wells when the lift station was down. I also incorporated solenoid valves into the compressor-air tank system to shut off the air to the pneumatic pump well field when the treatment plant is down, thereby making combined provisions to shut this well field when either the treatment plant or the lift station was down. The intent in these dual interlocking arrangements was to eliminate spills at the lift stations and the treatment plant when one or both of these systems malfunctioned.
I designed steel sleeves for road crossings including the bedding material, cover and backfill. The design took into consideration the static and live loads over the pipe and past experience in installing sleeve crossings. An A106B Schedule 80 steel sleeve was used in consideration of the dynamic loads present. The steel sleeves were designed for water lines and electrical/control conduits from recovery wells.
I revised existing specifications for the above project and the treatment plant upgrade project which is discussed next. In certain cases, I prepared new specifications. List of specifications revised/prepared new follow: Division 1: General Requirements, Division 2: Site Work (Site Clearing, Soil Materials, Aggregate Materials, Grading, Excavating, Back-filling, Trenching, Pavement Repair and Resurfacing and Landscape Restoration), Division 3: Concrete (form-work, reinforcement, cast-in-place, curing and pre-cast), Division 5: Metals, Division 11: Equipment (pumps, static mixers, and process piping and valves, process tanks), Division 13: Special Construction (Instrumentation such as ultrasonic and mechanical flow meters, electrically actuated valves, process monitoring and control system, control panels, float and level switches, Pressure regulators, pressure relief valves and pressure switches, field testing, pneumatically actuated valves, pressure transmitters, programmable computer and MMI Computer Systems, etc.), Division 15: Mechanical (Basic Mechanical Methods and Materials, Yard Piping and Hydrostatic Leak Testing, Supports, Anchors and Seals), and Division 16: Electrical.
back to project list 1-20
|10||Design and Construction Engineering for Treatment Plant Upgrade, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
I provided design and construction engineering support for the upgrade and optimization of a groundwater treatment plant. The design facilitated an increase in plant capacity from 600 to 1,000 gpm. In addition, the design incorporated upgrade of the groundwater remediation collection systems from hard wire to radio communications. My initial task involved revising the original design and finalizing the bid package. During this revision, I performed the following designs:
I prepared the process flow diagram (PFDs) and preliminary (PIDs) for the upgrade.
I prepared a new collection system design for Sites 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 showing bypass lines and valves that could be used to divert contaminated groundwater to the treatment plant via the old collection system trunk-line. The bypass was to be used when the new trunk-line was shut down for maintenance or due to mechanical problems, thereby building an important redundancy into its framework. I also prepared the layout and details for below ground and above ground lines and revised or added new pipe supports.
I redesigned collection systems for sites 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 to decrease head loss by minimizing intersections and extending each system directly to the lift station in a new line. Previously, the lines from different systems were tying into each other and a main line carried the water to the lift station. This resulted in an ineffective system because water from certain systems could not be effectively conveyed due to head losses at system intersections with the main trunk line. The redesign performed by me was intended to eliminate these problems.
During the revision and redesign, I evaluated mounting options for an overhead line to be mounted on stanchions at a height of 30 feet (the stanchions ran parallel to several industrial buildings and conveyed process lines to the process treatment facility). Extension angles were welded on to the angles in the overhead stanchions and I performed the steel design to ensure that it meets requirements for the pipe loads, resulting deflections and moments, weld strength, etc. The new overhead lines were laid on these angles and clamped to them with U-bolts.
I evaluated material types for the approximately 2,000 ft overhead line to be mounted on the stanchions. I was initially presented with HDPE as the preferred option due to its low cost. However, I did not approve its use for this above ground application because my analysis for this material indicated that it could expand by as much as 13 ft for every 100 ft for the range of temperatures typical for this location. I realized that this would cause an expansion of 260 ft for the approximately 2,000 ft stretch causing it to snake and undulate extensively along the stanchions and requested the project manager to reconsider his decision. Upon reviewing the results of my calculations the project manager requested that I come up with an alternative recommendation. I chose carbon steel because of its significantly lower coefficient of thermal expansion and its compatibility for process use. The theoretical instantaneous unrestrained change in length was calculated as a product of the length and the thermal strain. My calculations indicated that the steel pipe would increase in length by 0.624 inches every 100 feet which would be almost, negligible in terms of forces exerted on the pipe and the supports/anchors which were well capable of handling these forces.
I designed a below ground soil staging line to convey contaminated water from the staging area to the treatment plant influent tank. I selected a Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) 17 HDPE pipe and sized the 4-inch line based on the pumping head, required flows and the calculated head loss in order to maintain the required head to convey water to the influent tank. I calculated the pressure in the 4-inch line based on the pump head ratings for the required flow and calculated it to be 45 psi which is significantly less than the pressure rating of 100 psi for the SDR 17 pipe (factor of safety of 2.4). I calculated the horse power required for the pump based on the total dynamic head and found it to be 7 hp whereas the pump actually had an actual horsepower of 25. Assuming an efficiency of 60% which provided a hp of 15, I determined that it met requirements. I prepared the layout drawing to show the route to the treatment plant for below ground installation of the line. The route was chosen based on access, above and below ground utilities and obstructions. The intent was to minimize the number of below ground utility crossings which included gas lines, electrical and communications lines, potable water lines and storm sewers. After testing the pump to ensure that it was in working condition, the new below ground line was constructed. At the place where the line surfaced to connect to the above ground influent tank, a concrete collar was designed for protection of the exposed line, and concrete thrust blocks were placed at all major turns to protect the line from hydraulic forces while pumping water to the influent tank. Fiber-glass insulation, with all service jacket was designed for the above ground piping that traversed above ground over the containment pad and connected to the influent tank. The insulation was designed to protect the water from freezing during winter and damaging the pipe. After installation, but prior to back-filling, the below ground line was hydraulically tested at 1.5 times its normal service conditions.
I redesigned the final effluent line from the activated carbon polishing building to the the effluent manhole tie-in to increase the flow in this line from 450 to 1200 gpm. During the redesign, I evaluated the existing system to determine why the flow in a 10-inch pipe is limited to 450 gpm. Upon doing a system evaluation I found that a contractor (supporting a different firm) had tied-in the below ground polishing building effluent (gravity line) to another active gravity line from another effluent tank T-05. The tie-in point was 4 feet above ground level. My calculations indicated that the head at the tie-in point was higher than the head available at tank T-05. Therefore, water from the polishing effluent line flowed into tank T-05, instead of flowing into the effluent manhole 500 feet down-gradient. At equilibrium, the polishing building effluent registered only 450 gpm. Based on these findings, I redesigned the polishing building effluent line to tie-in below ground to the T-05 effluent line100 feet down-gradient. I recommended that the valve from tank T-05 be closed when the polishing building effluent line is active. After implementation of the design, the polishing building effluent line is now conveying about 1,200 gpm of treated water to the effluent manhole.
I designed a reinforced concrete pad for a fiber-glass tank. The total dead load on the pad when the tank was full approximated 15,000 lbs. I designed the pad as a column and designed spiral reinforcement. I designed minimum reinforcement for the pad and checked its adequacy with the maximum allowable load on the reinforced concrete pad. Since the maximum allowable load was significantly higher than the actual load on the reinforced concrete pad, I specified minimum reinforcement consisting of 1 #6 circumferential at top and bottom and longitudinal #6 at 12-inches center/center. A mesh of #2 bars at 12-inches center/center bothways at top and bottom were provided for the 16-inch thick reinforced concrete pad to meet ACIs minimum thermal reinforcement requirements. Pad diameter was 6.5 feet. The pad was designed as a hexagonal pad 16-inches thick. Every other 6-inch longitudinal reinforcement was doweled into the underlying slab with a minimum of 6-inch embedment. The underlying slab was drilled and grouted with epoxy to match the containment pad.
I designed a lift station (for the site 7 groundwater recovery system) to accommodate flow from existing 8 well groundwater recovery system, a future recovery trench, and a new system optimization recovery well including all associated piping. I designed silt-traps to precede the lift station. I perfomed preliminary designs for repairing existing electrical and control wiring and conduits to the 8 wells, selected new electrical pumps for a recovery well, and completed the site layout for the new controls and radio communication system.
I calculated the required pump head and flow rating for a lift station to maintain adequate flow and pressure in the 6-inch and 8-inch trunk lines to a treatment plant (about 2,000 feet from the lift stations). I made recommendations to the project manager to facilitate selection of the correct pump (which had a head and flow rating significantly higher than the actual total dynamic head present in the system).
I calculated the spacing for pipe supports based on maximum allowable deflection (designed for 0.25 inch mid span deflection for HDPE pipe based on manufacturers data). For example, I came up with a spacing of 6 feet, 7 feet and 8 feet for 4-, 6- and 8-inch HDPE lines respectively.
I designed the conduit alignment/route from a new control panel to a junction box (approximately 1,000 feet) for site 8. I performed preliminary designs for the electrical and control wires from the new control panel to the junction box. In addition, I performed preliminary designs for providing power to the new service entrance and control panel from the existing 13.2 KV overhead power line via step down transformer. Preliminary designs were reviewed by an electrical engineer, modified and finalized prior to implementation.
I performed conceptual designs showing the site layout (sites 9 and 10), pipe and conduit sizes for conveying water, electrical transmission and controls communication from recovery wells to the treatment plant and control panels. The lines were designed based on required capacities for the use. A 2-inch below ground HDPE SDR 11 line was selected based on the pumping head, required flows and the calculated head loss in order to maintain the required head to convey water to the treatment plant.
Installation of new piping and pumps inside the treatment plant and interconnections to increase the flow and integrate the tri-zone plant into a single system to optimize capacity and utilization of all the three zones.
After completion of plant upgrade construction I designed and modified the plant to optimize its effectiveness. Plant upgrade photos are available at these links:
My tasks involved providing project engineering support to the plant engineer and plant operator during this optimization phase. My first task was to assist in minimizing the Ultraviolet Organic Oxidation System (UV/OX) shut down time. The UV/OX system was shutting down and turning on frequently since there was not enough water cycling through the system at a steady pace. I visited the plant to evaluate the situation and learned that the ion exchange system was clogged due to iron deposits and therefore the flow was erratic and caused frequent start-stop of the UV/OX units. I proposed that the ion exchange system be bypassed since it was functioning at a negative efficiency and was actually contaminating the influent. My proposal has been implemented and now the system is running better than in previous operations. The cation resins for the ion exchange unit were replaced and the unit is back in service. A process diagram of the Zone 2 organic and metals treatment system is provided:
back to project list 1-20
|11||Miscellaneous Design-Construction Projects, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
I designed a new valve box to house an existing cleanout and valves. I required 1 ft width, 9-inch thick 3,000 psi concrete (ASTM C150 Type III Cement) all around steel drive over valve box on compacted sand to serve as skirt with a slope of 1 inch/1 feet. I designed No. 10 mesh at 6 inches center/center top and bottom in each direction with 1-inch cover.
I specified the type of material to be used for construction of a berm that was partially washed away during a flood. The material specified was clean clay material free of organics.
Liquid Limit (Test Method Tex-104-E) 50 max
Percent passing No. 200 mesh sieve (Test Method Tex-110-E) 30 min
Fill material was required to be compacted to 95% of the maximum dry density as established by Tex-114-E (6-inch lifts) and field density testing was required in accordance with Tex-115E, Part 2.
I prepared numerous construction cost estimates for diverse design and construction projects using RS Means, National Construction Estimator and Cost Link Database. The cost estimates were prepared as a part of: site remediation feasibility studies and included calculations of present worth,
budgetary proposals with conceptual designs in response to Request for Proposals and detailed estimates based on the final design to compare contractor quotes.
During the course of these estimates I made several design modifications that met the standards while reduced costs significantly.
back to project list 1-20
|12||Corrective Measures Study for Groundwater Treatment, (a) Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Site, Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX and (b) Department of Energy Site, Jacobs Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN|
back to project list 1-20
|13||Interim Stabilization Measures for Sites A, B and C Contaminated with Heavy Metals from Plating Operations, Free Product, Chlorinated Solvents and DNAPLs, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
I evaluted remedial alternatives for interim stabilization of a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) contaminated with soil and groundwater at concentrations exceeding TNRCC limits in source areas beneath former buildings and in the shallow groundwater plume (less than 30 feet below ground surface) that extends off base.
Based on Risk Reduction Standard Number 3 (Closure and/or Remediation with Controls), I assembled alternatives to meet the interim measures objectives. I composed each alternative to provide a range of distinct options to address site-specific features. I concluded that the "no action" alternative is not viable since it does not address the major source-dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). The following are the three alternatives I proposed for interim stabilization of the SWMU:
Installation of a large slurry wall around the SWMU, and maintenance of the existing asphalt capped parking lot to contain the DNAPL pools.
Installation of a smaller slurry wall to encompass only the known DNAPL pools and the contaminated soil and operation of the existing groundwater recovery system.
Operation of the existing groundwater recovery system.
I evaluated the above three alternatives and proposed implementation of Alternative 2 for interim stabilization of the SWMU (pending decision on final remediation). My recommendation was based on the results of my evaluation which indicated that Alternative 2 will:
The slurry wall was constructed by another firm. I prepared similar interim stabilization measures for two other sites. The proposed alternative for these two sites were a combination of existing groundwater recovery wells and new groundwater recovery wells located along channels or zones of high hydraulic conductivity for containment of chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. The slurry wall option was not chosen for these sites since extensive DNAPL pools were not confirmed to be present. I designed the dual phase (free product and contaminated groundwater) recovery system for one of these two sites and will soon be designing the entire groundwater collection system for both sites. I designed the reinforced concrete containment pad to support the 300 gallon free product tank with automatic shutoff of the product well pump when the tank is full. I also designed the well pumps and the groundwater collection line to pump contaminated groundwater to a new oil-water separator on the containment pad and on to an equalization tank at the treatment plant.
During a preliminary evaluation, I determined that the existing below ground 2-inch line cannot be used for groundwater collection (65 gpm) and transport due to extensive scaling in the pipe. I calculated the effective diameter of the pipe to be approximately 1 ½ inches based on actual pump tests using a 75 gpm pump rated for a head of 70 feet (only 35 gpm could be pumped using this pump). I ruled out acid cleaning of the pipe to increase its effective cross section due to the presence of free product deposits and the potential for violent reactions. I evaluated the use of a bigger pump, but I concluded based on my calculations that the use of a powerful pump (75 gpm rated for a head of approximately 300 feet) would create pipe pressures that exceed the pipe rating for the HDPE pipe. I therefore designed a new 4-inch HDPE pipe for the collection system.
I prepared a work plan for pilot testing an innovative technology known as Vacuum Enhanced Extraction (VER) at the free product site to enhance free product recovery with the dual phase extraction system. During the ongoing pre-treatability study evaluation of this technology (while awaiting client comments on the work plan) I identified a new technique that could be used to recover free product in-situ free of intermingled water. I have since specified an in-line insitu oil-water separator for free product recovery. I am presently incorporating this system into the dual phase extraction design.
back to project list 1-20
|14||Corrective Measures Implementation (Design and Detailed Construction Cost Estimate) for Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals and Chlorinated Solvents, Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Science Applications International Corporation, San Antonio, TX|
Since the Corrective Measures Study was completed, I was responsible for the design of sheet piling around the site to prevent contaminant migration during construction which involved installation of the Six-Phase Electrical Heating System to Enhance Soil Vapor Extraction of chlorinated solvents and excavation of hot spots. I prepared detailed cost estimates based on my design.
back to project list 1-20
|15||Environmental Compliance and Waste Management for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, and Waste Management of Y-12, X-10 and K-25 Plants at Oak Ridge, at Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN|
I performed an environmental compliance audit of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, KY, which is an uranium enrichment facility. Several sites within the plant were audited to assess regulatory compliance associated with current and previous plant operations and to identify environmental problems. The audit involved data review, performing interviews, interpreting visual observations, completing a site screening and detailed assessment checklist, and a report documenting the findings. I performed technical review of environmental audit reports.
I prepared Integrated Waste Management Plans for Y-12 inactive nuclear weapons production, K-25 inactive gaseous diffusion plant and X-10 active research facilities, PGDP, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. I prepared a plan for treatment and disposal of mixed radiological, dioxins and furans, and potential inorganic RCRA characteristic wastes from demolition of the cooling towers at K-25. As sub-task manager, I prepared documentation on waste certification program implementation and requirements for Hazardous, Radiological, Mixed and Sanitary/Industrial wastes for K-25.
back to project list 1-20
|16||Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis-Environmental Assessment, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN|
I prepared the process flow diagram for treatment of water encountered during excavations which was expected to be high in solids loading. I was responsible for the identification, description, conceptual design, and evaluation of remedial alternatives, documentation of Applicable Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs), and preparation of the EE/CA-EA for cleanup of mixed wastes, radioactive, inorganic and organic contamination. The inorganics and organic contamination included RCRA Hazardous wastes subject to land disposal restrictions. I coordinated the project activities with a team of about 20 people over a period of 4 months. I was part of the team that prepared detailed analysis and ARARs for the Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement (FS-EIS) East fork Poplar Creek.
back to project list 1-20
|17||Feasibility and Treatability Studies for Department of Energy Sites, Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN|
I performed a Focused Feasibility Study for identification, preliminary screening and evaluation of interim action engineering alternatives for containment of the Northwest trichloroethylene (TCE) and technetium (99Tc) Plume at PGDP. I received commendations from the client for an outstanding quality product through the SAIC Waste Management Department Manager. I evaluated treatment processes including latest techniques in soil and groundwater treatment (reactive gates, in situ vitrification, low temperature thermal desorption, powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT), reverse osmosis, steam stripping, etc.) and containment (deep soil mixing, jet grouting, block displacement, in combination with pumping wells, etc.). I determined subsurface conditions at PGDP and recommended the preferred technology for remediation of the plume (hydraulic containment in combination with a barrier wall adjacent to the source of contamination).
I perfomed conceptual designs and analysis for remediation of the WAG 22 Burial Grounds at PGDP. The DOE site manager for the WAG 22 FS, provided a written commendation applauding the team's determination in finding cost-effective ways for environmental cleanup and stabilization. I performed Feasibility Studies for remediation of the burial areas at WAG 22, Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 2; SWMU 2 is contaminated with a wide range of organic (TCE, PCB), inorganic (heavy metals) and radiological (99Tc, uranium, pyroforic) constituents. I prepared conceptual sketches/process diagrams and designs for treatment of contaminants present in soil and groundwater, identified, developed and performed detailed analysis of engineering alternatives. I developed the dewatering, excavation, remote drum retrieval and sampling protocols for the radiological and hazardous wastes stored in several thousand buried drums, and also developed the bulking and consolidation protocols for compatible wastes.
As the project lead, I prepared a Treatability Study Program Plan for WAG 23 (a site contaminated with PCBs, volatile organics, metals and radiological constituents) at PGDP. I visited the site, evaluated construction/remediation feasibility, and evaluated, identified and recommended feasible technologies for site cleanup. I received commendations from the project manager at Paducah for accelerated responses to project needs.
I prepared a Feasibility Study Work Plan for remediation of WAG 17 radiologically contaminated concrete rubble pile sites at PGDP. This includes identification of Decontamination techniques for structural steel, concrete rubble, railroad ties, pipes and contaminated soil.
In summary, I prepared conceptual Designs of engineering alternatives for remediation of contaminanted sites, performed conceptual designs of treatment systems, performed detailed analysis and recommended engineering alternatives for site cleanup, prepared remedial design plans for a proposal and treatability study program plans. Published paper on "Remedial Action Alternatives for Containment of the Source and the Centroid of the Northwest Plume of Groundwater Contaminants Originating from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Kentucky, USA," Second International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest 1994, Hungary.
back to project list 1-20
|18||Demobilization/Closure and Spill Control Plan for Chanute Air Force Base, Rantoul, Illinois at Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN|
For the Chanute Air Force Base Project in Rantoul, Il, I prepared the Demobilization and Closure Plan and Spill Control and Discharge Plan for remediation of a landfill and a test site contaminated with metallic and organic contaminants.
back to project list 1-20
|19||Feasibility and Treatability Studies for Department of Energy Sites, Jacobs Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN|
I received a letter of commendation from the U.S. Department of Energy for escalation of milestones as the task manager, resulting in savings of over $2 million in overall costs and finalization of a Feasibility Study, Proposed Plan, Record of Decision, Remedial Design, and Filled Coal Ash Pond Remediation 7 years ahead of the original schedule.
I served in the capacity of Task Manager for the Chestnut Ridge project which is a part of the DOE Environmental Restoration Contract. The task involved the preparation of a Proposed Plan Support Document (PPSD) which is an intermediate decision document focused on enhancing the level of conceptual engineering provided in the FS for the preferred alternative. The PPSD was designed to simplify the actual remedial design performed after the signing of the Record of Decision (ROD). I reviewed the Feasibility Studies completed by another engineer and prepared the Proposed Plan for Remediation of the Coal Ash Dam area through dam improvements and dam stabilization, and installation of a passive treatment system containing a sedimentation basin and constructed wetlands for surface water treatment. Remediation proposed included environmental enhancement of the eco-system using organic material and nutrients. The project received a national environmental award for consideration of environmental sensitiveness in the final design and construction.
I prepared a monitoring plan for pre- and post-remedial monitoring of the Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond area to support the 5-year CERCLA review. In addition, I supported DOE in review of the remedial design report and remedial action plans and prepared weekly construction reports during construction.
I also served as Task manager for the K-25 Project The task involved preparation of a feasibility study for a classified burial ground, a contaminated burial ground, engineering studies for in-situ vitrification and chemical oxidation of a pit contaminated with volatile organics and radionuclides, and remediation of PCB contaminated ponds.
I prepared the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) and Technical Specifications for Magnetometer Surveys for identifying buried objects, and Soil Sampling with Geoprobe Sampling Systems for an Atomic City Auto Parts site contaminated with PCBs, radiological constituents, organics and heavy metals including mercury. I prepared an in-house presentation on emerging treatment technologies for contaminated soil, groundwater, and sediment and received commendations for effective communication and presentation of technical geological and hydrogeological and engineering recommendations relevant to remediation.
Onsite disposal cell task: I prepared technical summaries dealing with borrow soil for construction of the disposal cell and geotechnical tests, including interpretation and post-construction monitoring. David Witherspoon 901 and 1630 sites remediation: I ran the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) software for the 901 site to identify remedial action alternatives based on detailed input of site and contaminant characteristics. Assisted with technology screening and identification of preliminary alternatives plus preliminary ARARs for the characterization report.
FS Engineering Group Leader (1995): I updated the FS group comprising of a group of engineers periodically on recent developments and coordinated and arranged presentations on key engineering, geology and hydrogeology, risk and environmental compliance issues. I published the following papers: (1) "The Case for Limited Action: A Proposed Alternative to Excavation and Removal of Pyroforic Uranium Waste at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant", Presented at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Summer National Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, July '95. (2) "Streamlining Cleanup Decisions at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant through Integration"; Presented an abstract for the Air and Waste Management National Conference in Nashville, June '96. (3) "Streamlining Cleanup Decisions at the Filled Coal Ash Pond"; Proceedings for the Air and Waste Management National Conference in Nashville, June '96.
back to project list 1-20
|20||Remedial Investigation, Closure Permits, Studies & Design (CERCLA / RCRA / NRC), EPA, DOE and Commercial Client (GE) Bechtel Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN|
I designed and planned Remedial Investigations (RI) at the Channel Master Site, North Carolina and performed site data analysis and identification of groundwater plumes present at the site.
I prepared a preliminary conceptual design drawing for a multiple well groundwater extraction pumping system followed by air stripping for removal of volatile organics for the Vega Alta site in Puerto Rico.
I performed engineering studies/analysis of existing waste storage piles
on DOE sites for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP
Project) and prepared several designs for both soil and geomembrane pile
covers and anchor systems and performed detailed structural analysis for
I calculated the tension in the anchoring cables based on wind load analysis information provided by the modeling group and compared it with the allowable tension while providing a factor of safety to identify the number of cables and orientation. Based on further evaluation of different geomembranes, I concluded that a polypropylene membrane would provide the characteristics required for durability, strength and moderate expansion and in combination with an under-running cable system similar to the ones used at army depots. I prepared overheads for the project manager showing stockpile and geomembrane, soil cover design options and study reports/recommendations for submittal/presentation to DOE.
Performed structural analysis of manholes for a FUSRAP project to come up with the specifications for purchasing the appropriate manhole to accommodate site-specific requirements. I performed calculations for determining the buoyancy, uplift force, AASHTO and soil load on the manhole structure. I determined the maximum moment and shear on manhole roof. I calculated the load on the manhole wall from Soils above, roof slab weight, and AASHTO loads. I calculated the maximum bending stress and moment on the walls and designed the reinforcement. I checked the base slab for dead loads, soil loads and AASHTO live loads and checked the bearing pressure during the design. Based on my calculations, I concluded that the manhole cannot be buried at a depth greater than 2.9 feet below grade. I used the ACI code in the design.
I calculated the maximum slope angle "b", based on the angle of internal friction "f", and the cohesion "c" (for various factors of safety) for a low level radioactive waste storage pile covered with clean soil and riprap on the slope. I prepared the conceptual design for a soil cover and riprap configuration for the FUSRAP project.
I designed and prepared RI reports and plans, Environmental Assessment reports, and Remedial Design packages (RD). I prepared Site Remediation (Construction) Work Plans and construction drawings and reports for the Reynolds Aluminum Company Project in Massena, New York. Construction Reports Documented Site Remediation Activities and FS Reports.
Performed an environmental assessment of the Newton Creek Site and prepared a report. Prepared a technical justification report for the Bald Knob Site, Posey County, Indiana which was reviewed by EPA. Subsequently, the Bald Knob Site was removed from the National Priorities List based on this report that I prepared documenting the technical reasoning based on geology, hydrogeology and nature-extent of contamination.
I prepared the 100% Remedial Design for Remediation of inorganics contaminated soil through Solidification/Stabilization for the Sapp Battery site in Florida.
I designed Covers for Hazardous Waste Storage Areas and Surface Impoundments and prepared Permanent Closure and Interim/Temporary Storage Plans and Closure Plans/Permit Applications for GE, Mt. Vernon, Indiana, which included RCRA cap designs.
I received commendations from a private client for a PCB contaminated material interim storage plan (approved by the State of New York) which included my design of the PCB pad complying with TSCA requirements.
I functioned as Environmental Projects Laboratory Coordinator, and performed Level I and II Data Validation including Contract Compliance Screening and Deliverable Checks on Laboratory Analytical Reports for Samples Associated with RI and Remedial Action (Construction) activities. I checked cancer risk dosage design calculations for several contaminants. Calculated critical contaminant levels for media of concern and prepared fugacity calculations to determine the distribution of contaminants. I prepared toxicity profiles for a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants.
I calculated alternate cleanup levels for the FMC site in Dublin Road, New York. I considered numerous parameters that are important in determining the rate of infiltration and leaching to determine the safe level in soil to maintain maximum contaminant levels in water. I prepared several engineering design drawings for monitoring well construction at the Vega Alta Site, Puerto Rico.
I prepared/checked Designs for: air strippers and pretreatment system, Storm Sewer, sanitary sewer, storm water storage reservoir, secondary containers for primary containers storing hazardous wastes, manholes, checked cut & fill earthwork calculations for the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWASA) using Civil Soft Software, and I summary I have performed structural analysis/design of manholes, tanks, hazardous waste stockpile covers, anchor systems, etc. Publications: (1) "Investigation of Manganese Sequestration by Silicates and Polyphosphates with Oxidants," Ph.D. Dissertation, Environmental Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, August, 1990. (2) "Silicate Effects on Iron Colloids in Sequestration," American Society of Civil Engineering, National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Washington, DC, July 1990. (3) "Sequestration of Iron in Groundwater by Polyphosphates," AWWA Annual Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 1990. (4) "Sequestering Methods of Iron and Manganese Treatment," Published by the AWWA Research Foundation and the AWWA, March 1990. (5) "Capping Options for Low Level Radioactive Material Storage Pile," Waste Management Symposia 1993.
back to project list 1-20